"In all ages, the tendency of the heretic has been to single out one aspect of Christian life or doctrine, and treat it as if it were the whole." Ronald Knox
Monsignor Ronald Knox, 1949, St.Edmund's, Ware
Ronald Knox had a mathematical as well as literary mind which enabled him to see historical parallels in seemingly unrelated tendencies. Enthusiasm (1950) is his life's work. It is subtitled A Chapter in the History of Religion with Special Reference to the XVII and XVIII Centuries. Msgr. Knox traces a tendency to enthusiasm from the first days of the Church into the XX Century. It contains not only a characteristically charitable analysis of this tendency but valuable lessons for those of us who remain confused by the strange enthusiasms of so many of our neighbors in the XXI Century.
- The Nature of Enthusiasm
- The Corinthians' Letter to St. Paul
- The Montanist Challenge
- Donatist and Circumcellion
- The Underworld of the Middle Ages
- The Pattern of Medieval Heresy
- The Anabaptists and the Reformation
- George Fox and 17th Century Protestantism
- Malaval, Petrucci, Molinos
- Madame Guyon and the Battle of the Olympians
- The French Prophets
- The Convulsionaries of Saint-Medard
- The Moravian Tradition
- John Wesley
- Some Vagaries of Modern Revivalism
- The Philosophy of Enthusiasm
Msgr.Knox concentrates his most in-depth research on John Wesley and the Religion of Experience. He devotes no less than four chapters to this remarkable man.
SOME RANDOM QUOTES FROM THE INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION:
"There is, I would say, a recurrent situation in Church history - using the word 'church' in the widest sense - where an excess of charity threatens unity. You have a clique, an elite, of Christian men and (more importantly) women, who are trying to live a less worldly life than their neighbors; to be more attentive to the guidance (directly felt, they would tell you) of the Holy Spirit...The pattern is always repeating itself, not in outline merely but in detail. Almost always the enthusiastic movement is denounced as an innovation, yet claims to be preserving, or to be restoring, the primitive discipline of the Church... I would have called [this] tendancy 'ultrasupernaturalism'. For that is the real character of the enthusiast; he expects more evident results from the grace of God than we others. He sees what effects religion can have, does sometimes have, in transforming a man's whole life and outlook; these exceptional cases (so we are content to think them) are for him the average standard of religious achievement. He will have no 'almost-Christians', no weaker brethren who plod and stumble... the emphasis lies on a direct personal access to the Author of our salvation, with little of intellectual background or of liturgical expression... at the root of it lies a different theology of grace. Our traditional doctrine is that grace perfects nature but leaves it nature still. The assumption of the enthusiast is bolder and simpler; for him, grace has destroyed nature, and replaced it."
Msgr. Knox traces this pattern through history considering what "philosophy underlies this secular conflict between the charismatic and the institutional, and the part which authority must needs play in finding a tolerable adjustment." After studying a myriad sects and their follies, the consequences of ultrasupernaturalism are clear and Msgr.Knox wisely concludes that "the issue is between some kind of authority and unrestrained private judgement."
"Basically it is the revolt of Platonism against the Aristotelian mise en scene of traditional Christianity. The issue hangs on the question whether the Divine Fact is something given, or something to be inferred. Your Platonist, satisfied that he has formed his notion of God without the aid of syllogisms or analogies, will divorce reason from religion;"
"Let us note that traditional Christianity is a balance of doctrines, and not merely of doctrines but of emphases. You must not exaggerate in either direction, or the balance is disturbed. An excellent thing to abandon yourself, without reserve, into God's hands; ... but, teach on principle that it is an infidelity to wonder whether you are saved or lost, and you have overweighted your whole devotional structure... Conversely, it is a holy thing to trust in the redeeming merits of Christ. But, put it about that such confidence is the indispensable sign of being in God's favor, that, unless and until he is experimentally aware of it, a man is lost, and the balance has been disturbed at the opposite end;"
"In itself enthusiasm is not a wrong tendency but a false emphasis. Quietism exaggerates only a little the doctrine of the mystics about simplicity in prayer, about disinterested love. Quakerism does but enthrone in dangerous isolation the truth of God's presence within us. Jansenism is the vigilant conscience of Christendom overshadowed by a scruple. Methodism is the call back to Christ in an age of Deism."